Reflections on the spoon test

Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019

Source: Neuropsychologia

Author(s): Clive Wilkins, Nicola Clayton


In this paper, we shall use Tulving’s seminal empirical and theoretical research including the ‘Spoon Test’ to explore memory and mental time travel and its origins and role in planning for the future. We will review the comparative research on future planning and episodic foresight in pre-verbal children and non-verbal animals to explore how this may be manifest as wordless thoughts.

via ScienceDirect Publication: Neuropsychologia

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